Tuesday September 4 2018
Just what is a mezzala?

The Italian term 'mezzala' is quickly entering common football parlance, notes Andrea Tallarita, but do you really know what it means?

Every now and then, especially in English-speaking circles dedicated to Serie A, an Italian term enters the football lingo and becomes part of common parlance. As an Italian, this is a phenomenon I am much more inclined to celebrate than deplore. New words enrich everyone's vocabulary and are often useful, exact, tactical descriptors.

At the same time - and inevitably - this linguistic cross-pollination is also the cause of a great deal of confusion, and at worst, it can promote a petulant form of snobbery. A few years ago, you could putatively tell the difference between people who 'got' Italian football versus those who didn't in terms of whether they knew the subtler meanings of the word fantasista. Later, the parole du jour became trequartista. Today, at a time when variants of the 4-3-3 are so profuse in Serie A, the term that keeps appearing in debates is mezzala.

An increasingly divisive and popular tag, the mezzala is described in terms that are getting more and more specialistic. It is, we are told, a new role, a product of the modern innovations in Serie A. The role of this player is variable: some believe he is a box-to-box midfielder with special duties, others argue that he must overlap with the winger, and a few provide detailed, convoluted explanations of the passing geometries that a player must engage in to belong to that exclusive Italian club.

Though I accept that Italian terms may assume a life of their own in English-speaking circles, these disagreements call for a little bit of clarification. All the more so because the Italian language is frequently invoked as a source of taxonomical legitimacy. Sentences often start with, 'But in Italian, the term means...' or 'What Italians originally meant by that word...', and so on.

So, let us try and clear the air a little, and hopefully make the term more accessible to everyone. Firstly, the spelling is mezzala or mezz'ala (both are equally acceptable), and not mezalla, mezala, mezza'la, mezzella, mezzalla, or mozzarella, most of which are misspellings I have seen with my own eyes. It is not necessary to capitalise it as Mezzala, any more than it is necessary to capitalise regista or terzino.

The term mezzala is a contraction of 'mezza ala', meaning 'half wing(er)'. The plural is admittedly tricky: the plural for the word 'ala' in Italian is 'ali', but the football vernacular turns it into mezzale (and not 'mezzali', even if this appears more logical).

Contrary to what is sometimes declaimed, there is nothing new or innovative about the use of the word mezzala. If anything, the term is quite primitive: back in the 1930s, when the standard football formation was the WM system, Italians had only two words to describe the role of the midfielder: the first was 'intermedio', describing the two players closest to the defence, and the other was mezz'ala (at the time always spelt with an apostrophe), referring to the two players closest to the offence.

The Italian word for a midfielder in general, which is 'centrocampista', is by comparison fairly young. It was coined only in the 1950s by the father of Italian football journalism, the legendary Gianni Brera. It was originally written as centro-campista, then without the hyphen from the 1960s onwards.

A slight but useful digression: the meaning of centrocampista was and remains very broad, and embraces a great variety of players. If someone proposed that, on account of their technical differences, Andrea Pirlo was a true centrocampista whilst Daniele De Rossi is not, that person should expect to be on the receiving end of some funny looks. This allows for a pertinent analogy, because for all of the bluster, the same should roughly be true of the mezzala.

It is helpful to draw a distinction between Italian football words which describe a position and those which describe a role. A 'trequartista' is primarily a position, specifically the central lines of the pitch at a height approximately between the midfield line and the opposition box. A 'fantasista' is a role, describing creative, technically gifted players who can invent offensive plays and moves on the fly. For obvious reasons, these two terms overlap, and in casual conversation they may be used interchangeably (within reason).

The term mezzala, in contemporary Italian, indicates a position in a three-man midfield. Thus, in a 4-3-3, the central spot in the midfield will usually be occupied by a playmaker (regista), flanked by two mezzale. If the simplicity of the definition feels anti-climactic, that's because it should: a mezzala is simply any midfielder playing on one of the two sides in a three-man midfield. It may alternatively be used to describe any central midfielder whose role is not specialised (someone flanking the playmaker in a four-man midfield, for instance).

The confusion in English-speaking circles stems from the fact that this descriptor for a position is frequently used as though it indicated a role. Thus, claiming that a mezzala can also be a mediano (or even a slightly decentered regista) is presented as a contradiction. The 'real' experts of Italian football, apparently, would never confuse these two terms so grossly.

But in truth, in the same way that a fantasista can also be a 'punta' (striker), and a trequartista can also be a box-to-box midfielder, likewise the term mezzala accommodates a variety of roles. In fact, as a position covering the whole range from central midfield to either of the wings, it is among the most flexible terms in the game, and it includes a very wide array of footballer-types, both offensive and defensive, both gritty and creative.

If someone wants to use the word mezzala to indicate something more specific in relation to a particular team or tactic, that's fine. Modern football is a sophisticated game, and a sophisticated language is sometimes necessary to describe it. What really doesn't work is using that word (or any other word) to validate alleged expertise, which is unfortunately what it is often employed for. This is only a form of presumption.

The trend we are seeing at work with the term mezzala is not a special case but a constant of football discourse, which is why the cautionary conclusion to this article is necessary. I mentioned other Italian terms that, at several points in time, became fashionable as the markers of a fictional football aristocracy. It is appropriate to close this article with the only one of these words that never falls out of fashion, that being catenaccio.

Very succinctly, the word catenaccio refers to a particular tactical system developed in Italy during the 1950s and 60s. In common parlance, both in Italy and abroad, the term is also synonymous with 'parking the bus', or defensive football of a particularly stale nature.

Periodically I come across someone in a football debate using the latter, more casual definition of catenaccio, only for someone else to perk up and claim that the real meaning of catenaccio is in fact a lot more complex, historically specific and subtle, and clearly the other person has no understanding of Italian football if s/he does not know such a basic distinction. But in reality, both definitions are completely acceptable, and using or even occasionally confusing one with the other is no indicator of anyone's level of understanding of Italian football.

Employing specialised/specialistic definitions of a word and then silencing other speakers for using a simpler, more common definition (as opposed to engaging with their actual arguments) is a rhetorical trick as old as the hills, and it is certainly not limited to football. You may witness instances of it almost any time you listen to a political debate.

A broader discussion of this fallacy goes beyond the scope of this article, but within our little circle of sports fans, you should keep an eye open for people explaining the term mezzala for you (or whatever next becomes fashionable: regista, seconda punta, fluidificante...). If you notice that their definition becomes particularly complex or convoluted, and if they attempt to dismiss your arguments on the grounds of you not being familiar with their specific definition, then the person you're dealing with is not an expert, only a charlatan.

Have your say...
I love this, nice one
on the 9th February, 2021 at 11:34am
A trequartista can be a box-to-box!? NO WAY. A trequartista is a classic number 10 - was Del Piero box-to-box? Mancini? Kaka? Ronaldinho? Kinda makes a nonsense of the article when you get things like this wrong.
on the 16th December, 2020 at 5:57pm
I wanted to comment on this:

"Employing specialised/specialistic definitions of a word and then silencing other speakers for using a simpler, more common definition (as opposed to engaging with their actual arguments) is a rhetorical trick as old as the hills...instances of it almost any time you listen to a political debate."

Words have meanings & some meanings are complex. It isn't a fallacy to point out if someone uses incorrect terminology. Might want to leave the philosophy out of it.
on the 4th September, 2020 at 6:14am
The 'mezzali' sat between the centre-forward and the wingers in a 5-man attacking line - hence why they were 'half-wingers'. When Italian teams abandoned the 5-man attacking line used in the 'Metodo' and 'WM' systems, the roles of mezzali changed. Basically, one would drop back to help cover the defence, while the other remained just behind the centre-forward. So people began referring to the former as a 'regista' (deep lying playmaker) and the latter as a 'fantasista' (trequartista).
on the 28th April, 2020 at 4:52am
The plural of mezzala is 100% mezzali.

I have no idea where you took that convoluted yet wrong "vernacular" theory.

Wherever that unexistant word is used, they simply do not speak proper Italian.
on the 14th August, 2019 at 7:31am
Fantastic piece. I appreciate it not only from the tactical perspective, but also from the perspective of an English speaker living in Italy and learning the language, culture, etc.
on the 21st June, 2019 at 8:20am
@Juve Kenya
Modric plays on the right side of a midfield 3 with Casemiro in the center, and Kroos left. The midfield is very flexible and all 3 players exchange positions freely, but Modric definitely spends most of his time on the right being overlapped by Carvajal.
Modric dribbles with the ball, drives forwards, pops up in the box, chips in with goals, carries the ball out of the defense. He pretty much does it all.
Maybe not a mezzala but definitely not a trequartista or regista either.
on the 6th September, 2018 at 5:33pm
Nice article

if people did not know this then how can they ever comment on Italian football. Not to blow my own horn but i consider myself and historian of the game especially Italian football. Another item I laugh at how many people consider themselves as coaches when they have no idea as the history of formations, let alone the great players of the past.
on the 5th September, 2018 at 8:10am
Great article. Thank you so much!
on the 5th September, 2018 at 7:49am
Fantastic read. Thank you so much!
on the 5th September, 2018 at 7:48am
I thought this article was pretty boring
on the 5th September, 2018 at 1:56am
I think Modric is usually applied as a regista and rarely in some phases of the game esp as playing for Croatia in the World Cup as a trequartista. I have not seen him being used as a mezzala.
on the 5th September, 2018 at 12:16am
won 7 (SEVEN) back to back titles in the most part with pretty average side while the rest of the challengers have floundered and the Milan sides have taken turns in self-destructing. It's time for Serie A to wake up. And no I haven't given this too much thought........
on the 5th September, 2018 at 12:02am
decent strikers and a plethora of trequartiste. At one stage we had Baggio, Zola, Del Piero and Totti. Now we have nobody who can play in that position between the midfield and the attack. I feel this has been influenced by the obsession with mezzale. And the result is the Azzurri were knocked out of the group stage in 2010 and 2014 World Cups and didn't make the 2018 one, a Serie A side has not won a European cup since 2010 (thanks to Wesley Sneijder's Inter in a 4231 formation) and Juve have
on the 4th September, 2018 at 11:59pm
be the holding player and Kessie could be a box to box midfielder and we could move Bonaventura into the hole where he can float. Stick a bit of pace out wide left and suddenly we are much more dynamic side. We go from struggling to make the top 4 to potential title challengers with one tactical change. Juve have had success playing 4231 so why nobody else uses it in Serie A is beyond me. It's strange that for a long time Italy struggled to produce good midfielders. We had great defenders, some
on the 4th September, 2018 at 11:52pm
were Milan's Pirlo (passer), Gattuso (ball winner), Seedorf (dribbler and passer) and Kaka (dribbler, passer, break forward) and Man Utd's Beckham (passer), Keane (ball winner), Scholes (passer and break forward) and Giggs (dribbler). Everyone had a clear role. Everyone offered something different. With mezzale you usually end up with two players with similar characteristics. It's horrible. All the while one of them could've been a proper trequartista. Take the current Milan side. Biglia could
on the 4th September, 2018 at 11:50pm
around dynamic formations. Meanwhile back in Serie A we are stuck with these rigid formations that are so predictable. What happened to a simple 4231 with a floating trequartista? Milan, in particular, has played this horrible 433 formation for a few years. My main issue with it is you've get midfielders with too many similar characteristics. A midfield needs someone to win the ball, someone to pass it, someone to dribble and someone to break forward. Possibly the two greatest midfields of all
on the 4th September, 2018 at 11:46pm
I hate the term and I hate the role and I hate the rigid 433 it results in. First things, first, Serie A is an awful state. With the exception of Juve (who do not use mezzala, mezzale or mezzali) every other team is sub-standard at the moment compared to La Liga and the Premier League. La Liga has dominated European football for the past 10 years with Real and Barca taking turns to win the Champions League and Sevilla winning back to back Europa Leagues. These teams have built their success
on the 4th September, 2018 at 11:39pm
Enjoyable read! Thanks FI
I'm wondering if mezzala is being used more frequently today to describe the new emerging class of athletic midfielders, like Pogba, SMS, Allan, Kessie, Vidal, etc... Atheltic players with technical skill and offensive ability, yet cover every blade of grass and get stuck in.
Traditionally, I've always thought of a mezzala more as a skillful midfielder who drifts wide, like Bonaventura for example.
Another example could be Modric. If not a mezzala than what is he?
on the 4th September, 2018 at 4:26pm
Superb article, informative and free from bias.
on the 4th September, 2018 at 4:24pm
Oh! I love this writer and the article. Its one of the most informative and entertaining piece of art that provoked a grin from me all day. Thank you Mr Tallarita
on the 4th September, 2018 at 12:44pm
What an article Andrea! So informative and educational. I like how you touched on different/related/unrelated terms and aspects and interwove them well-always coming back "home". You just taught us about the mezzala...but not only, so much more! Thanks
on the 4th September, 2018 at 11:58am
One of the best-written and most useful articles that I have recently read on Italian Football. I wonder if similar, general terms exist for describing forwards.
on the 4th September, 2018 at 11:14am
In Italian the definition is broader, but in international-speak right now, Mezzala refers more to the b2b midfielders who have good creative/offensive abilities. e.g. Pogba, DiMaria at Madrid, Iniesta, David Silva, De Bryunne.... as opposed to more standard b2b midfielders (Gatusso, Parolo, Vidal) or CMs (Xavi, Kroos, Fabregas)
on the 4th September, 2018 at 10:57am

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